In spite of the fact that on a number of positions of an investment rating the Far East improved the indicators, moods of internal investors the still not too optimistical.
Speak about need of improvement of investment appeal of the Russian regions not the first year. Far East here not an exception: in the territory various institutes and instruments of support of business are created, the power goes for dialogue with business community, inviting businessmen in advisory councils, and government bodies try to simplify regulations and to reduce terms of carrying out various procedures. Whether businessmen of change feel?
Partially the answer to this question was given by the National investment rating made by Agency of strategic initiatives of data of official statistics and polls of businessmen. The last confirm that changes of institutional character in regions it is available. However thus at internal investors still still there is a lot of problems, and it is possible to solve them only in constructive dialogue between the power and business.
The rating showed positive dynamics
If to speak about results of the National investment rating, its results it is much better than that were sounded last year after pilot approbation of the new mechanism of an assessment of investment climate. A number of regions including Far East, increased the situation in a rating, and the number of the businessmen who took part in polls increased.
“Our task – to involve the greatest number of businessmen in creation of a rating, – the head of Agency of strategic initiatives in the Far East federal district Olga KURILOVA speaks. – The more businessmen are involved in changes which happen in the region, the rating indicators become better and more reliable. When business doesn’t know that does the power, it also estimates its actions as appropriate. If the power leads the life, and business – the, it at once finds reflection in a rating”.
In total this year part in a rating was taken by 76 regions. For its drawing up 230 thousand businessmen were interrogated. The total assessment was removed by 45 criteria broken into four groups: “The regulatory environment”, “Institutes for business”, “Infrastructure and resources”, “Support of small business”.
Tatarstan became the most attractive region from the point of view of investments, the second and third place was taken by the Kaluga and Belgorod areas. Regions of the Far East belong to averages on investment appeal to regions and entered the third and fourth categories of a rating. For example, the Kamchatka and Seaside regions and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) were included into the third group of regions, having received satisfactory estimates in such directions as extent of development of institutes of business, infrastructure and resources, and also supports of small business. Besides, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) together with the Kaluga, Penza and Sverdlovsk areas, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area and Kamchatka Krai was among the best regions on support of small business. At exposure of estimates in this group a number of indicators was considered. Among them number of subjects of small business per 1 thousand. the population person, share of the workplaces created in the resident companies of business incubators, existence and quality of information portal concerning support and development of small business in the region, number of the multipurpose centers of providing the state and municipal services etc.
“Research caused a great interest in experts, representatives of subjects and business community, – commented on poll results the Deputy Prime Minister of Marín SUBBOT of Kamchatka Krai. – Most good results at Kamchatka Krai by such criteria of an assessment as support of small business and the regulatory environment. It means that the government of edge works in the correct direction, and business sees it. There is, of course, a number of problems, specific to edge, which at once to solve very difficult, for example connection of new consumers to power supply networks and other infrastructure restrictions, but also we work on them. In plans today creation of industrial parks, agro-industrial platforms where business will be able to come and at once to start realizing the projects. We tell thanks to business for that dialogue which at us is adjusted today. Work is built the serious. Cooperation is carried out within the investment standard, including the assessment of the regulating influence is entered. That is we discuss all normative legal acts concerning business with businessmen, and only after that the document is accepted”.
The fourth block of a rating of investment appeal from Far East regions included Khabarovsk Krai, the Sakhalin and Magadan areas. With the least attractive investment climate the Ryazan region, the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Altai Republic, the Amur region, Zabaykalsky Krai, the Irkutsk region are called regions. Two Far East regions – the Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Chukotka – didn’t take part in a rating. In these territories there was no necessary number of respondents for participation in poll.
“If to sum up the general result of a rating about the country, a number of indicators really managed to be improved, – Olga Kurilova speaks. – Indicators on connection to power supply networks, registration of legal entities, obtaining the construction license became much better. By the way, last year the worst practice on this indicator was in Primorsky Krai and made more than 300 days. Today the situation changed. Quite high place is taken by Primorsky Krai on quality of the regional legislation, and here by number of checks an indicator not the best: according to businessmen, still there is a lot of them. Not too businessmen highly appreciate quality and availability of infrastructure. This problem is characteristic for all Far East”.
According to Olga Kurilova, on the majority of indicators of a federal rating at least one subject of the Far East is included into group A or B.
“In the Far East there is no pronounced leading region, – the expert speaks. – Even Kamchatka Krai which got to group A twice, “came off” neighbors not really strongly. That Primorsky Krai in one of groups of a rating didn’t get to group E (the lowest group pleases. – A comment of the author) as it was in pilot approbation. That is dynamics of changes is available. Now this dynamics needs to be turned into getting to group B”.
After preparation of the National investment rating the Agency of strategic initiatives collected the most successful practicians aimed at the development and support of small and average business and issued the Atlas municipal the practician. The collection included examples which gave effect in the territory of concrete municipalities. Successful practicians in the atlas are distributed in three directions: the institutional environment, interaction with institutes of development, optimization of administrative procedures. It is supposed that introduction successful the practician of activity of local governments in municipalities will allow to assess the current situation and to reveal growth points, to systematize work on improvement of conditions of business.
To understand as far as these practicians will be able “to get accustomed” in other territories, ICQ CLIENTS started the pilot project on their introduction. From regions of the Far East the city district “City of Yakutsk” was among pilot territories – exactly here has to be introduced not less the 10th practician from the Atlas.
“The best practicians of interaction of the regional authorities with investors were selected from 27 regions by results of an assessment of the business community, – the public representative of ICQ in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Levan SAAKADZE, the cochairman of the Yakut office “Business Russia”, the head of the jeweler company “Egelge” speaks. – Not best of strategy (after all all regions are unique therefore also everyone has to have a strategy the), and the best practicians of execution of separate blocks were allocated. Thus implementation of requirements of the standard doesn’t come to an end with the fact of receiving a positive assessment from expert groups, the Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation or positive total confirmation from agency. The key task consists in that the created instruments of improvement of investment climate, increases of investment appeal of the region worked, and worked effectively. In this regard already in it, the 2015th, year the agency began implementation of the project on improvement of investment appeal and development of business activity at the level of municipalities. It is pleasant that the city of Yakutsk one of the first took the initiative of participation in this pilot project on approbation of the best the practician and starts showing the first results. We often meet representatives of regional and municipal authorities, we hold brain storms and strategic sessions to develop uniform approach. Business has to understand a position of officials, and they, in turn, could look at execution of requirements of the standard from the point of view of business community”.
Businessmen want to go further
Businessmen in regions of the Far East in general agree that changes of institutional character happen, and is very active. However, unresolved problems on which else both the power, and business need to work, remains much.
In Primorye, for example, one of the main issues – availability to businessmen of loan financial resources. Still strongly and pressure upon business.
“We this year too conducted survey, in it more than 350 people took part in Primorye. And on the first place businessmen raise a question of availability of financial resources, – the representative on protection of the rights of businessmen in Primorsky Krai Marina SHEMILINA speaks. – On the second place – the administrative pressure upon business and number of checks. That is, on the one hand, concerning business becomes quite a lot today, with another – judging by those addresses which to me arrive, business not really feels these changes. Perhaps, because changes have regulatory character so far”.
Approximately same problems are sounded also by Alexander MONASTYREV, the president of Fund of industrial integration of Asia-Pacific countries: “We prepared information for the State Council on development of small and average business and made a rating of problems which businessmen have. On the first place they put insufficiency of a financial resource. Businessmen need crediting under small percent, it now the most actual that can be. On the second place – imperfection of the tax law. We can hardly influence these two factors at the local level. And here with the following two factors which were sounded too by businessmen, – a nedoinformirovannost and checks – it is quite possible to work at places. And it needs to be done”.
The Yakut businessmen also speak about pressure of the state upon business today. Vladimir SUSLOV, the director of Olyokma bakery (Yakutia), among the problems disturbing to business development speaks about increase in prices for energy carriers, expendables, raw materials and transport expenses. “In recent years the cadastral cost of the earth which occupies the enterprise, jumped up with two to more than twenty millions. And this additional tax burden. As well as to all companies of Russia, the Yakut businessmen access to the long-term credits is closed”, – the businessman speaks.
The subject of high cadastral cost of the earth and real estate was sounded repeatedly in the performances also by the business ombudsman of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Aytalina SOKOLOVA. According to its data, in Yakutsk the expert analysis of the carried-out cadastral assessment revealed that the cadastral cost of real estate around the city strongly differs, on some new constructions it is much lower, than on old buildings.
According to Nikolay the NINTH, the member of the Yakut office “Business Russia”, it is possible to add administrative barriers from UFNS to above-mentioned problems and questions of vocational training of shots on technical specialties.
A number of the questions actual for internal investors is sounded also by the Kamchatka businessmen. In survey conducted recently in the territory of the region they called 6 main problems of investment climate. Among them receiving a project financing, allocation of the land plots, connection to engineering infrastructure, tax and customs procedures, receiving federal support of investment activity.
Rather project financing businessmen note small number of the banks ready to organize such financing and to credit projects with a payback period more than 2 years. Difficulties with mortgage providing are characteristic first of all for medium business – the companies which have no considerable assets. For this group of investors it is also difficult to fulfill requirements of banks for a share of own means in the project. Due to these problems businessmen note modest scales of the state guarantees which the government of edge can provide. Businessmen are interested in wider use of this instrument of support of investment activity.
In a question of allocation of the land plots investors pay attention to inconsistency of actions of various government institutions, long terms of allocation of sites. The high cost and long terms of connection to networks push businessmen to formation of own infrastructure – first of all autonomous electrogeneration and water supply.
Interaction of investors with tax and customs authorities, according to businessmen of Kamchatka, more significant barrier, than in other regions. Businessmen pay attention that for federal bodies not important, whether the project priority on Kamchatka is. Employees find any “catches” to refuse granting tax privileges or return of the VAT. Investors pointed to unfriendly behavior of the tax inspection and in relation to questions of return of the VAT on import of the equipment which is strongly tightened.
Also they have problems with release from duties on import of the equipment in the cases provided by the legislation. According to respondents, the staff of customs service doubts purpose of the imported equipment and that it is really imported, even when it is about the city-forming enterprise and the large investment project, socially significant for the territory. Problems arise and that customs authorities often don’t give the official answers explaining refusal that does impossible submission of the complaint.
“For business development all branches of the power have to work at a regular basis, hear businessmen and solve their problems, help to create new business and to expand the existing. And businessmen should participate actively together with the government in the course of discussion and formation of territorial plans, plans of creation of infrastructure objects that the means spent by the state eventually promoted growth and development of business, but didn’t become the next objects for “development of the budget”, – the CEO of JSC Agrotek, the public representative of ICQ in Kamchatka Krai Vladimir RUBAKHIN considers.
The Khabarovsk business ombudsman Oleg GERASIMOV among the main problems which are negatively influencing investment climate of the capital of the Far East federal district calls five system questions. Among them high interest rates for the credits for business, deficiency of a manpower in the Far East, need of development of the mechanism of attraction of subjects of small and average business to service of residents of TORAHS, assignment of a duty of payment of “northern privileges” for payment of journey of employees to the vacation spot, and also illegal business.
In the Amur region, according to the business ombudsman Oksana STEPANOVA, questions of allocation of the land plots for construction of facilities of production appointment in regions of area most are particularly acute. The second serious problem – impossibility to get in certain cases the construction license.
Time to unite
One more problem about which representatives of enterprise associations speak today, is still low enterprise activity on upholding of the interests.
As Elena NOVIKOVA, the director of NOU “Asia-Pacific School of Cultural Policy”, the head of the ICQ expert group in Primorsky Krai speaks, today it is necessary to focus attention to consolidations of elite. “It will allow our region to find a vector of the advancing development in the near future, – she considers. – Consolidation of elite always helped Russia to break. Now, probably, too such historical moment came. Both consolidation, and use of the best the practician is our chance. I think that today we in the region have enough platforms, but the business community still poorly uses them”.
Marina Shemilina in this question supports the colleague and also says that until the enterprise community is separate until think only of themselves, no advance happens: “Time of emotions left today, and the period when concrete figures and the facts matter came. And in order that to bring together them including from enterprise associations, efforts it is required to put much. Tools for dialogue appear today: we have advisory councils, institute of the rights of businessmen, ICQ authorized on protection. If to use these tools, much can achieve”.
Elena ARDALYANOVA. Far East Capital magazine, August, 2015.